Research

Please search for topics below, and you will see research studies showing that the type of sound meditation on this website is effective for many needs. The sound meditations on this site are called audio training sounds, brainwave entrainment, sound entrainment, binaural beats, and binaural auditory beats.

The top section covers reviews of many studies, and below that are individual studies that are put together by topics. Some of the studies listed have quotes of their results. We will continue to show more data from this research over time, and build research based questionnaires to help with more individualized profiles.

Research Reviews and Analysis of Current Research:

Garcia-Argibay, M., Santed, M. A., & Reales, J. M. (2019). Efficacy of binaural auditory beats [i.e. audio training sounds] in cognition, anxiety, and pain perception: a meta-analysis. Psychological Research83(2), 357-372.

Huang, T. L., & Charyton, C. (2008). A comprehensive review of the psychological effects of brainwave entrainment [i.e. audio training sounds]. In Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet]. Center for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

EEG Changes from Audio Entrainment:

Jirakittayakorn, N., & Wongsawat, Y. (2015, August). The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level. In 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) (pp. 4687-4691). IEEE.

Solca, M., Mottaz, A., & Guggisberg, A. G. (2016). Binaural beats increase interhemispheric alpha-band coherence between auditory cortices. Hearing research, 332, 233-237.

Ala, T. S., Ahmadi-Pajouh, M. A., & Nasrabadi, A. M. (2018). Cumulative effects of theta binaural beats on brain power and functional connectivity. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 42, 242-252.

Yamsa-ard, T., & Wongsawat, Y. (2014, November). The relationship between EEG and binaural beat stimulation in meditation. In The 7th 2014 Biomedical Engineering International Conference (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Guruprasath, G., & Gnanavel, S. (2015, March). Effect of continuous and short burst binaural beats on EEG signals. In 2015 International Conference on Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Gao, X., Cao, H., Ming, D., Qi, H., Wang, X., Wang, X., … & Zhou, P. (2014). Analysis of EEG activity in response to binaural beats with different frequencies. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 94(3), 399-406.

Chaieb, L., Wilpert, E. C., Reber, T. P., & Fell, J. (2015). Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood states. Frontiers in psychiatry, 6, 70.

Jirakittayakorn, N., & Wongsawat, Y. (2017). Brain responses to a 6-Hz binaural beat: Effects on general theta rhythm and frontal mid-line theta activity. Frontiers in neuroscience, 11, 365.

Dimentia and Alzheimer’s:

Martorell AJ, et al. Multi-sensory gamma stimulation ameliorates alzheimer’s-associated pathology and improves cognitionCell. 2019 April;177(2): 256-271.e22. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.02.014. Epub March 14, 2019.

Adaikkan C, et al. Gamma entrainment binds higher-order brain regions and offers neuroprotectionNeuron. 2019 June;102(5): 929-943.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.04.011. Epub May 7, 2019.

Pain, Anxiety, Lowering Anesthesia Use, and Fibromyalgia:

Zampi, D. D. (2015). Efficacy of Theta-Binaural Beats for the Treatment of Chronic Pain. Northcentral University.

Quote from the Above Research Study:

“Results indicated a large intervention main effect on reduced perceived pain severity with the theta-binaural beats [sound training] intervention generating a 77% greater reduction in pain severity scores as compared to the placebo. as evidenced by a greater drop in means. Because stress reduction often helps those with chronic pain, the placebo may have served as a way to mitigate stress, thus reducing perceived pain (Lutz, Slagter, Dunne, & Davidson, 2008). However, study results demonstrate a greater reduction in perceived pain when using theta-binaural beats. The results support the hypothesis that theta-binaural beats [sound training] are effective at reducing perceived change in pain severity.”

Garcia-Argibay, M., Santed, M. A., & Reales, J. M. (2019). Efficacy of binaural auditory beats in cognition, anxiety, and pain perception: a meta-analysis. Psychological Research83(2), 357-372.

Quote from the Above Research Study:

“[Audio training, sound meditation] consistently showed effectiveness in reducing the amount of intraoperative anesthesia.”

Padmanabhan, R., Hildreth, A. J., & Laws, D. (2005). A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre‐operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery. Anaesthesia, 60(9), 874-877.

Quote from the Above Research Study:

“…audio [training] has the potential to decrease acute pre‐operative anxiety significantly. “

[i.e. The data from the above studies showed that the sound training group, using sounds like the ones on this site, had 58% less anxiety than the group listening to music, and 86% less anxiety than the group with no intervention.]

Venturella, I., Muzio, F., & Balconi, M. (2016). ID 56–Fibromyalgia and psychoacustic stimulation: An EEG study on pain modulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 127(3), e113-e114.

Quote from the Above Research Study :

“Results; Results showed a generalized relaxation effect mirrored by increasing delta frequency in fronto-central area, and increasing alpha frequency over occipital areas. We observed also a decreasing of beta band power. Delta is even clearer during acoustic stimulations calibrated on this frequency band. Electrophysiological evidences are supported by a decrease of VAS and NRS scores after psychoacustic stimulation.

Conclusions; The effect of relaxation on pain perception and EEG activity allowed to suppose the effectiveness of such methods in treating fibromyalgic pain.

Key message; Binaural beats can represent an alternative non-pharmacological treatment for fibromyalgia.”

Le Scouranec, R. P., Poirier, R. M., Owens, J. E., & Gauthier, J. (2001). Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes. Alternative therapies in health and medicine, 7(1), 58.

Garcia-Argibay, M., Santed, M. A., & Reales, J. M. (2019). Efficacy of binaural auditory beats in cognition, anxiety, and pain perception: a meta-analysis. Psychological Research, 83(2), 357-372.

Wiwatwongwana, D., Vichitvejpaisal, P., Thaikruea, L., Klaphajone, J., Tantong, A., & Wiwatwongwana, A. (2016). The effect of music with and without binaural beat audio on operative anxiety in patients undergoing cataract surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Eye, 30(11), 1407-1414.

Quote from the Above Research Study:

A significant reduction in heart rate was seen only in the group.”

Le Scouranec, R. P., Poirier, R. M., Owens, J. E., & Gauthier, J. (2001). Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes. Alternative therapies in health and medicine, 7(1), 58.

Kliempt, P., Ruta, D., Ogston, S., Landeck, A., & Martay, K. (1999). Hemispheric‐synchronisation during anaesthesia: a double‐blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra‐operative nociception control. Anaesthesia, 54(8), 769-773.

Quote from the Above Research Study :

In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that patients using intra‐operative Hemi‐Sync tapes whilst undergoing a range of different surgical procedures under standardised general anaesthesia with a laryngeal mask require substantially less fentanyl when compared with controls.

Pre – Operative Dental Anxiety:

Isik, B. K., Esen, A., Büyükerkmen, B., Kilinc, A., & Menziletoglu, D. (2017). Effectiveness of binaural beats in reducing preoperative dental anxiety. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 55(6), 571-574.

Parkinson’s – Cognition, Gait, Anxiety in Treating Parkinson’s:

Gálvez, G., Recuero, M., Canuet, L., & Del-Pozo, F. (2018). Short-term effects of Binaural Beats on EEG power, functional connectivity, cognition, gait and anxiety in Parkinson’s Disease. International journal of neural systems, 28(05), 1750055.

Quote from the Above Research Study:

The use of binaural-rhythm stimulation [i.e. audio entrainment, or sound training] for Parkinson’s Disease, as designed in this study, seems to be an effective, portable, inexpensive and noninvasive method to modulate brain activity. This influence on brain activity,…resulted in a normalization of EEG,…normalization of brain Frontal Cortex (also altered in Parkinson’s Disease), and working memory improvement (a normalizing effect). In summary, we consider that sound, particularly binaural-rhythmic sound [i.e. audio entrainment, or sound training], may be a co-assistant tool in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease…”

Calomeni, M. R., da Silva, V. F., Velasques, B. B., Feijó, O. G., & Bittencourt, J. M. (2017). Modulatory effect of association of brain stimulation by light and binaural beats in specific brain waves. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH, 13, 134.

Quote from the Above Research Study:

“Also, indicated gains in memory functions, for both, children and [the] elderly are related to gains in brain waves modulation.”

Dementia:

Calomeni, M. R., da Silva, V. F., Velasques, B. B., Feijó, O. G., & Bittencourt, J. M. (2017). Modulatory effect of association of brain stimulation by light and binaural beats in specific brain waves. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH, 13, 134.

Quote from Abstract:

“Also, indicated gains in memory functions, for both, children and [the] elderly as related to gains in brain waves modulation.”

Child Birth:

Kurdi, M. S., & Gasti, V. (2018). Intraoperative meditation music as an adjunct to subarachnoid block for the improvement of postoperative outcomes following cesarean section: a randomized placebo-controlled comparative study. Anesthesia, essays and researches, 12(3), 618.

Attention, Autism, The effects of Aging and Memory, Mood, Executive Functions, Focus:

Chaieb, L., Wilpert, E. C., Reber, T. P., & Fell, J. (2015). Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood states. Frontiers in psychiatry, 6, 70.

McMurray, J. C. (2006). Binaural beats enhance alpha wave activity, memory, and* attention in healthy-aging seniors.

Lane, J. D., Kasian, S. J., Owens, J. E., & Marsh, G. R. (1998). Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood. Physiology & behavior, 63(2), 249-252.

Quote from the Above Research Study:

“This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.”

Joyce, M., & Siever, D. (2000). Audio-visual entrainment program as a treatment for behavior disorders in a school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 9-25.

Beauchene, C., Abaid, N., Moran, R., Diana, R. A., & Leonessa, A. (2016). The effect of binaural beats on visuospatial working memory and cortical connectivity. PloS one, 11(11).

Hommel, B., Sellaro, R., Fischer, R., Borg, S., & Colzato, L. S. (2016). High-frequency binaural beats increase cognitive flexibility: evidence from dual-task crosstalk. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1287.

Colzato, L. S., Barone, H., Sellaro, R., & Hommel, B. (2017). More attentional focusing through binaural beats: Evidence from the global–local task. Psychological Research, 81(1), 271-277.

Beauchene, C., Abaid, N., Moran, R., Diana, R. A., & Leonessa, A. (2017). The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity. Journal of neural engineering, 14(2), 026014.

Sharma, V., Rathore, S., & Goswami, N. Beta wave Binaural Auditory Beats for Reducing Attention Deficit Disorder in Autistic children.

Calomeni, M. R., da Silva, V. F., Velasques, B. B., Feijó, O. G., & Bittencourt, J. M. (2017). Modulatory effect of association of brain stimulation by light and binaural beats in specific brain waves. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH, 13, 134.

Quote from Abstract: “Also, indicated gains in memory functions, for both, children and [the] elderly as related to gains in brain waves modulation.”

Kennerly, R. C. (1994). An Empirical Investigation Into the Effect of Beta Frequency Binaural-beat Audio Signals on Four Measures of Human Memory, ADD/ADHD. West Georgia College, Carrolton, GA.

McMurray, J. C. (2004). Auditory binaural beats enhance EEG-measured beta wave activity in individuals with ADHD (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Northridge).

Creativity:

Reedijk, S. A., Bolders, A., & Hommel, B. (2013). The impact of binaural beats on creativity. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 786.

Quote from Abstract: “Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking.”

Monaural Beats Work Like Binaural Beats:

Becher, A. K., Höhne, M., Axmacher, N., Chaieb, L., Elger, C. E., & Fell, J. (2015). Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, 41(2), 254-263.

Schwarz, D. W., & Taylor, P. (2005). Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats. Clinical Neurophysiology, 116(3), 658-668.

Binaural Beats, General Affects:

Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C., & Zwickey, H. (2007). Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(1), 25-32.

Migraines:

Lovati, C., Freddi, A., Muzio, F., & Pantoni, L. (2019). Binaural stimulation in migraine: preliminary results from a 3-month evening treatment. Neurological Sciences40(1), 197-198.

Insomnia:

Tang, H. Y., Vitiello, M. V., Perlis, M., Mao, J. J., & Riegel, B. (2014). A pilot study of audio–visual stimulation as a self-care treatment for insomnia in adults with insomnia and chronic pain. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback39(3-4), 219-225.

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